Commonly used types of paint
People have used paint for
centuries as a means of adding color to the world. Paint
also protects and covers houses and cars and provides
markers for traffic on the streets or signs for
businesses. Paint can add beauty and cover the faults of
an otherwise drab artificial environment. Paint itself is
a mixture of liquid and powder; the powder is the pigment
that gives color to the paint and the liquid is what binds
it and allows it to spread. In some paints a solvent, or
thinner, is used to make the paint easier to spread. The
kind of liquid and solvent used is determined by the kind
of paint being made. There are many kinds of paint and
they have many different uses.
Oil-based paints are thick and are commonly used as a
protective barrier. Outside paints can protect houses and
buildings from weather and the elements, while wall and
floor paints provide color to the inside. Wall paints can
be glossy, semi glossy, or flat, depending on the amount
of inert pigment in the paint. The larger the amount of
pigment, the flatter the paint, and the smaller the
glossier. Metal protective paints are used on the metal
machinery of farms and factories and on the surfaces of
structures such as bridges or boats. These paints prevent
the formation of rust and damage caused by corrosion from
wind, water, and other variables.
Latex paints can be used indoors and outdoors much like
oil-based paints, and are generally preferred due to their
ease of use. Because these paints are water-based, they
can be cleaned up with soap and water, however, latex wall
paints are not as glossy as oil-based. Latex masonry
paints are used mainly on bricks and cement and form a
film that holds in the alkali on the surface.
Primers are used as the first coat on plaster and wood
walls and usually have a varnish or synthetic resin base.
They coat and flow into the uneven surface, filling in the
tiny holes and cracks to allow the next layers of paint to
be smoothed across without soaking into the wall. Enamels
are used to cover inside and outside surfaces. They
contain little pigment and provide a glossy sheen most
commonly seen in kitchens and washrooms.
Lacquers are used to paint automobiles and are made with
synthetic resins and fast evaporating solvents. Pigment is
added to the solution and, after application, the paint
dries quickly as the solvent evaporates. Metallic paints
use aluminum or bronze powder that gives a metallic sheen
when the flakes float to the surface of the paint film.
Fire-retardant and heat-resistant paints are used where
there is danger of high heat or fire. Fire-retardant
paints use an oil or oil resin base and have chemicals
that cause it to blister and form an insulating barrier
between the fire and the wall. The paint will burn but can
be put out once the igniting fire is removed.
Heat-resisting paints cover warm or hot surfaces such as
ovens, boilers, or the cylinder heads in aircraft engines.
Alkyd-resin bases are used in paints for moderately hot
surfaces while silicone-resin is used for higher
temperatures. Very hot surfaces use a metallic pigment
mixed with varnish to evaporate and leave only the pigment
bonded to the surface.
Interior Paint Problems & Solution
Increase in gloss or sheen of paint film
when subjected to rubbing, scrubbing or having an object
brush up against it...
Bubbles resulting from localized loss of
adhesion and lifting of the paint film from the underlying
Undesirable sticking together of two painted
surfaces when pressed together (e.g., a door sticking to
Loss of caulk's initial adhesion and
flexibility, causing it to crack and/or pull away from the
surfaces to which it is applied...
Cracking - Flaking
The splitting of a dry paint film through
at least one coat as a result of aging, which ultimately
will lead to complete failure of the paint. In its early
stages, the problem appears as hairline cracks; in its
later stages, flaking occurs...